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Thursday, May 10, 2018

Takeda moves to join Pharma Giants with $62B Shire deal
by Lisa Du and Maiko Takahashi
Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. is joining the drug industry’s giants with Japan’s biggest overseas takeover -- a $62 billion deal for much larger rival Shire Plc.

Chief Executive Officer Christophe Weber capped a drawn-out pursuit of the U.K.-listed company with an acquisition he described as transformational that will give Takeda wider reach into the world’s biggest drug market and strengthen its global pipeline for lucrative drugs that treat rare diseases.

“The two combined create a rich pipeline in all stages -- early and late stage, which is very important," Weber said on a call after the deal was announced Tuesday. “We are in a good momentum and in a strong position.”

Takeda’s largest acquisition would catapult the company into the top 10 within the global pharmaceutical industry and add drugs like Shire’s Adderall for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to its roster. Weber, a Frenchman who is the first foreigner to lead the 237-year-old Japanese firm, is seeking growth in new markets and rare-disease treatments, which offer higher profit margins, amid patent expirations and drug pricing pressures at home.

Bigger Pharma

Takeda and Shire's combined $31 billion revenue would be in industry's top 10 (Source: Bloomberg, based on companies' filings for most-recent fiscal year):
  1. Johnson & Johnson $76,5B
  2. Roche $54,2B
  3. Pfizer $52,6B
  4. Novartis $50,1B
  5. Sanofi $40,9B
  6. Merck & Co. $40,1B
  7. Bayer $39,6B
  8. Glaxo $38,9B
  9. Takeda + Shire $31,2B
  10. Abbvie $29,2B
After fielding multiple bids for Shire, it was the fifth proposal -- a preliminary agreement the two companies reached last month -- that finally stuck. The Japanese company will acquire Shire for 46 billion pounds, or 49.01 pounds a share in cash and stock, according to a statement.

To help fund the cash portion of the deal, Takeda said it has secured a bridge loan facility of $31 billion with JPMorgan Chase Bank NA, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corp. and MUFG Bank Ltd., among others. Shire shares rose as much as 5.7 percent early Tuesday in London, while Takeda rose 4 percent in Tokyo before the deal was announced.

The bridge loan will be refinanced with a combination of long-term and hybrid debt, as well as cash, Weber said. The company could also consider issuing shares, he added.

With few late-stage experimental drugs in its own pipeline, Takeda needs lucrative new therapies. A Shire takeover brings Takeda treatments for rare diseases such as hemophilia -- a field that’s luring a growing number of drugmakers that can charge more for unique life-saving drugs than for routine treatment.

The deal increases Takeda’s exposure to the U.S., the world’s biggest pharmaceutical market. Shire, based in Lexington, Massachusetts, gets more than two-thirds of its revenue from North America. Takeda generates only 30 percent of its sales from the region.


Takeda had raised its bids over a six-week chase and agreed on a 60 percent premium to Shire’s closing price on March 27, before Takeda disclosed its interest. The agreement offers $30.33 in cash and either 0.839 new Takeda shares or 1.678 Takeda American depositary receipts.

The companies indicated in late April they had reached a preliminary deal valued at $64 billion, based on a stronger exchange rate for the pound at the time.

Takeda’s financial advisers included Evercore Inc., JPMorgan Chase & Co. and Nomura Holdings Inc., while Shire received financial advice from Citigroup Inc., Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs Group Inc.

While the deal would boost Takeda’s earnings potential, it also comes with risks. Japanese investors have worried about the hefty debt. S&P Global Ratings placed Takeda on a watch and warned it may lower the company’s ratings by up to two notches, it said in a statement Tuesday.

Moody’s Investors Service warning last month that Takeda could face a multiple-step credit downgrade due to a “spike in leverage.”

Takeda said the deal will save about $600 million in duplicated research and development costs. The company expects $1.4 billion in overall savings by the third year.

“The cost synergies seem to be much bigger than expected in the next three years,” Credit Suisse analyst Fumiyoshi Sakai said.

Bigger Rival

Takeda, which has seen its market value slide to $34 billion since announcing its interest, is taking over a much bigger rival. Shire’s shares have soared 31 percent, giving the company a market capitalization of about $50 billion.

A completed deal would dwarf SoftBank Group Corp.’s $40 billion purchase of Sprint in 2013, which ranked as the biggest takeover by a Japanese company. Takeda’s largest previous purchase was a $13.7 billion takeover of Nycomed A/S in 2011. Last year, the company expanded its footprint in the U.S. oncology market with the $4.7 billion purchase of Ariad Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Takeda said it will maintain its headquarters in Japan and will evaluate consolidating Shire’s operations into Takeda’s in the Boston area, Switzerland and Singapore.


The company expects it may reduce the combined workforce by 6 percent to 7 percent in the three years after the takeover, it said.
Fuente: Bloomberg

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TALLERES DE CAPACITACIÓN IN COMPANY, "A MEDIDA" 
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    .·. Dr. Miguel Ángel MEDINA CASABELLA, MSM, MBA, MHSA .·.
    Especialista Multicultural Global en Management Estratégico, Conducta Organizacional, Gestión del Cambio e Inversiones, graduado en University of California at Berkeley y The Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania)
    Consultor en Dirección General de Cultura y Educación de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
    Miembro del Comité EEUU del Consejo Argentino para las Relaciones Internacionales
    Representante de The George Washington University para LatAm (2017-1996)
    Ex Director Académico y Profesor de Gestión del Cambio del HSML Program para LatAm en 
    The George Washington University (Washington DC)
    CEO, MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS GROUP LatAm
    Skype: medinacasabella


    MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS GROUP LatAm ©
    es una Consultora Interdisciplinaria cuya Misión es proveer
    soluciones integrales, eficientes y operativas en todas las áreas vinculadas a:

    Estrategias Multiculturales y Transculturales, Organizacionales y Competitivas,
    Management Estratégico,
    Gestión del Cambio,
    Marketing Estratégico,
    Proyectos de Inversión,
    Gestión Educativa,
    Capacitación

    de Latino América (LatAm), para los Sectores:

    a) Industria y Servicios,
    b) Universidades y Centros de Capacitación,
    c) ONGs y Gobiernos.

    Thursday, April 26, 2018

    AI: separating Artificial from Intelligent
    by Mark Campbell


    It’s been a typical day for you as chief executive. Too many meetings, an impending budget crisis, and an analysis of last week’s production outage. And then a board member walks in; “Hey, I’ve been hearing about this Artificial Intelligence thing. We should buy one and jump over our competition. Let’s get on it”. Say what?

    Today, we suffer a never-ending stream of pseudo-tech predictions depicting AI as a cure-all or, conversely, as the first domino falling towards a Siliconocracy. Still other ‘industry experts’ dismiss AI as just the latest clever parlor trick. Yet despite these sensationalists, AI continues to make steady advancements into a widening spectrum of industries. So how can we sift through the rubble to find the real AI gems?

    Firstly, you can feel very safe in categorically disregarding the Utopians, Dystopians, and Agnostics. History shows, they unerringly overestimate the short-term impacts of emerging technologies while underestimating the long-term effects of progressive innovation.

    Out next logical step is to set aside the seemingly natural urge to immediately demo an AI solution. Instead our efforts will be better spent if we can identify, scope, and analyze the one problem which will best leverage AI and return the highest return on our technological investment. This, of course, is much easier said than done.

    We can now turn to finding a solution to the target problem, which inevitably begins with the obligatory question of buy versus build. In only the rarest cases, where you possess AI gurus complete with beanbag chairs and hipster beards, should you attempt to develop your first AI solution in-house. Instead, look at vetting one of the many AI-based solutions already on the market tailored to your target use case. The good news is there are hundreds of them – the bad news is there are hundreds of them.

    Artificial Intelligence is cracking the code on a whole family of non-procedural problems, such as image recognition, autonomous systems, and anomaly detection. Our research team recently completed detailed studies on how AI-based user behavior analytics is changing cyber security and smart operational analytics is accurately predicting impending system failures. These are but two examples of legitimate AI game changers.

    These advancements, however, are often drowned out by a deluge of disingenuous marketing. An all too common tactic used by AI hucksters is to position old-school savvy as new-wave smart. Savvy systems can only apply pre-programmed rules, logic, and inferences to existing knowledge. Nonetheless, savvy systems can solve an amazing array of complex problems like controlling a nuclear power plant, landing an airliner, or publishing the zillionth cat video.

    Yet, the best of today’s savvy systems are being eclipsed by smart systems. Smart systems ingest copious amounts of information, discover patterns in the data, adapt to these new patterns, and apply this evolving knowledge to their dynamic environment. While savvy systems are adept, smart systems adapt. So, how can you spot savvy dressed up as smart without completing a degree in Computational Learning Theory?

    There are two cold truths in AI. AI requires learning and learning requires data … and lots of it. If we probe these two axioms, we can quickly determine whether the product was designed in a vendor’s Engineering or Marketing department. Let’s hone Occum’s Razor a bit.

    A smart system’s learning is not programmed into the software by smart coders. Instead, it emerges naturally from training in which it adapts to new data patterns. There are several tried and true open-source platforms on which most AI applications are built, so, when we ask a legit product vendor about how their product was developed and trained, we are not asking for them to divulge trade secrets. Instead, we should see a gleam in their eyes like asking a grandmother for pictures of her grandkids:

    Smart Question
    Savvy Answer
    Smart Answer
    Learning
    What makes your solution smart?
    The expertise of our engineers, coders, programmers and developers.
    We trained a convulsion neural network to identify predictive failure indicators.
    How does your product learn?
    It uses a deep knowledge base and rules engine.
    We initially trained it on reference data in our labs but the product will adapt to actual behavior it sees in your data center.
    What platforms were used to develop your AI?
    Our own proprietary
    AI platform. Can’t share much – secret sauce.
    We used SKIL and DL4J to develop our model and Oryx for the large-scale production stream processing.

    As stated, learning requires data. But not just any data. AI training requires vast amounts of relevant preprocessed data – what data wizards call ‘wrangled’ data. If learning is like an engine, then big wrangled data is its high-octane fuel. We can discern wannabes from the real players by probing their training data:

    Smart Question
    Savvy Answer
    Smart Answer
    Data
    Can we train the product with our own data?
    No need. Our deep learning has been pre-programmed with all the rules you’ll need.
    Indeed. We recommend a two-week training period after installation before going live.
    What data sources did you train with?
    Sorry, that’s proprietary. I could tell you, but then I’d have to kill you.
    Glad you asked. We dumped all call detail records since 1994 plus all seismic data and …
    How much data did you train with?
    Seriously, I am
    going to kill you.
    We ingested three weeks of telemetry from 50,000 pipeline temperature and pressure sensors – over 43 TB in total.

    AI is very real and very powerful. But so is marketing. Therefore, we must separate hyperbole from reality, discerning savvy from smart. A quick salvo of well-crafted questions can provide an effective litmus test. From here the actual implementation, testing, and deployment of the system is no slam dunk, but most AI solutions splice nicely into today’s most common software development lifecycles.

    By ignoring the sensationalists, developing a high value use case, identifying a suite of candidate AI solutions, and filtering out the pretenders, you are well on your way to moving your enterprise from savvy to smart.

    Fuente: Chief Executive

    Haciendo click en cada uno de los links siguientes, Contenidos de nuestros 
    TALLERES DE CAPACITACIÓN IN COMPANY, "A MEDIDA" 
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      Consultas al email: mamc.latam@gmail.com


      .·. Dr. Miguel Ángel MEDINA CASABELLA, MSM, MBA, MHSA .·.
      Especialista Multicultural Global en Management Estratégico, Conducta Organizacional, Gestión del Cambio e Inversiones, graduado en University of California at Berkeley y The Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania)
      Consultor en Dirección General de Cultura y Educación de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
      Miembro del Comité EEUU del Consejo Argentino para las Relaciones Internacionales
      Representante de The George Washington University para LatAm (2017-1996)
      Ex Director Académico y Profesor de Gestión del Cambio del HSML Program para LatAm en 
      The George Washington University (Washington DC)
      CEO, MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS GROUP LatAm
      Skype: medinacasabella


      MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS GROUP LatAm ©
      es una Consultora Interdisciplinaria cuya Misión es proveer
      soluciones integrales, eficientes y operativas en todas las áreas vinculadas a:

      Estrategias Multiculturales y Transculturales, Organizacionales y Competitivas,
      Management Estratégico,
      Gestión del Cambio,
      Marketing Estratégico,
      Proyectos de Inversión,
      Gestión Educativa,
      Capacitación

      de Latino América (LatAm), para los Sectores:

      a) Industria y Servicios,
      b) Universidades y Centros de Capacitación,
      c) ONGs y Gobiernos.

      Friday, March 23, 2018

      Leading by Learning for Business Success
      by Brigadier General George Forsythe, Karen Kuhla and Daniel Rice


      This is the final article of the 6-part series focusing on how CEOs adjust to their disruptive business environments and what they learned from their efforts that might be helpful to other CEOs. To answer these questions, we interviewed six CEOs/Chairman/Presidents from a variety of industries: Joe DePinto (CEO, 7-Eleven); Mike Fucci (Chairman, Deloitte); Tony Guzzi (CEO, EMCOR), Margaret Keane (President and CEO, Synchrony Financial), Bob Leduc (President, Pratt & Whitney), and Bob Weidner (President and CEO, MSCI). We also interviewed General Dennis Reimer, who led the Army through a major transformation during the period when the Army created the term “VUCA.” We asked each of the leaders to describe their business environment and discuss how they are leading their companies to thrive in the face of massive disruptions. We are grateful to these leaders for their thoughtfulness and candor. We found their stories fascinating and relevant and hope you have as well.

      The six executives with whom we spoke all agreed their business environments are experiencing significant disruptions. Across a wide range of business sectors—manufacturing, engineering, aerospace, financial services, convenience stores and professional services—VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) is real. Technology advancements, competition, regulations and globalization are accelerating the rate of change and placing enormous demands on their business to be more agile and responsive to new market forces. What are they doing to adapt?

      First, they are creating, shaping and transforming their organizations’ cultures to be more responsive to their environments. They influence their organization’s culture by articulating and reinforcing corporate values. The executives spoke about the values of integrity, trust, empowerment, employee and leader development, and learning as being essential in the new normal of VUCA. Once the corporate values are articulated and shared, they reinforce them by personal example and presence and ensure they are cascaded throughout the organization. They also understand they need others to shape and reinforce the corporate culture; they use the values to guide hiring decisions and personnel development processes, and they ensure that all the organizational systems are aligned and synchronized to embody the culture.

      Culture change is hard work that takes time and continuous effort, and they understand the importance of communicating the need for change. The executives stressed the necessity for having a clear sense of shared purpose, an unwavering commitment to change and a willingness to listen to all stakeholders. Celebrating small early successes is important to build confidence in the change process and trust in the corporate leadership.

      Second, the executives are transforming their companies into learning organizations. They are encouraging experimentation with new products, services and procedures. From corporate R&D “skunk works” to small-scale pilot projects to cross-functional project teams, these executives are investing in experimentations with new ways of doing business within the markets. They are also creating the conditions where the organization can learn from experience, making “work” the “curriculum” for improvement and innovation.

      Techniques such as the after-action review (AAR) are enabling teams at all levels within the organization to learn from experience. These executives appreciate that things don’t always work out as planned; they have the courage to see the value in learning from failure, and they understand when and how to balance learning with organizational performance.

      Finally, the executives are investing heavily in employee learning and leader development. They understand that organizational agility requires agile employees who have the knowledge, skills and personal attributes to operate within the corporate culture they are trying to establish. Employee training programs are planned and delivered to create a workforce that embodies the culture. Leader development efforts leverage stretch assignments and work experiences, which are supplemented with supportive coaching and mentoring, to grow and expand the leadership bench of potential executives.

      At the end of the interviews, we asked the executives to reflect on how their efforts are working. They mentioned that employee surveys and “voice of the customer” feedback provide indications for how internal and external stakeholders perceive the change efforts. They also believe it’s important to be visible in, and available to, employees—listening to employees at all levels share their stories and experiences with change. They are employing “leadership by walking around.” The executives expect the changes will result in better performance of the business; although they are anxious to see early results, they also understand that many of their efforts will need time to fully blossom. They understand the importance of having patience, are eager to celebrate early successes and anticipate making great progress.

      Perhaps this is the most important takeaway: Excellence in a VUCA environment takes time. It requires strong leadership and agile, resilient team members who are all dedicated to being learning leaders who persevere in the face of resistance and setbacks. The six executives who shared their stories are certainly committed to change to provide better products and services of value on behalf of their customers, employees and shareholders. We are grateful for their willingness to share their experiences so others might learn as well—a true hallmark of learning leaders and organizations.

      Fuente: Chief Executive

      Haciendo click en cada uno de los links siguientes, Contenidos de nuestros 
      TALLERES DE CAPACITACIÓN IN COMPANY, "A MEDIDA" 
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        .·. Dr. Miguel Ángel MEDINA CASABELLA, MSM, MBA, MHSA .·.
        Especialista Multicultural Global en Management Estratégico, Conducta Organizacional, Gestión del Cambio e Inversiones, graduado en University of California at Berkeley y The Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania)
        Consultor en Dirección General de Cultura y Educación de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
        Miembro del Comité EEUU del Consejo Argentino para las Relaciones Internacionales
        Representante de The George Washington University para LatAm desde 1996
        Ex Director Académico y Profesor de Gestión del Cambio del HSML Program para LatAm en 
        The George Washington University (Washington DC)
        CEO, MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS GROUP LatAm
        Skype: medinacasabella


        MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS GROUP LatAm ©
        es una Consultora Interdisciplinaria cuya Misión es proveer
        soluciones integrales, eficientes y operativas en todas las áreas vinculadas a:

        Estrategias Multiculturales y Transculturales, Organizacionales y Competitivas,
        Management Estratégico,
        Gestión del Cambio,
        Marketing Estratégico,
        Proyectos de Inversión,
        Gestión Educativa,
        Capacitación

        de Latino América (LatAm), para los Sectores:

        a) Industria y Servicios,
        b) Universidades y Centros de Capacitación,
        c) ONGs y Gobiernos.

        Thursday, March 15, 2018

        Keys to developing Organizational Leaders
        by Brigadier General George Forsythe, Karen Kuhla and Daniel Rice


        While the fourth article focused on the organization, this one will address individuals. We were interested in how CEOs ensure that employees and organizational leaders are developed to meet the demands of a dynamic environment. Bob Weidner, CEO of MSCI, the industrial metals trade organization, indicated—“thoughtful companies view their people as assets in which you must invest.”

        Synchrony Financial’s CEO, Margaret Keane, summarized why employee development is so important in today’s business environment: “You cannot ignore the development of the employees, because they are the foundation of how things operate every day. In the environment we are in right now where change is happening at such an explosive pace, we have to make sure we are thinking through the skill sets of our employees to make sure they are going to be successful in their careers and that we have the right talent.”

        Companies grow employee talent through both training and development. When employees are preparing to move into management positions, training is oriented toward job-related and leadership skills. Development occurs through stretch assignments and critical on-the-job experiences that broaden employees’ understanding of the organization and enhance competencies for higher-level leadership. Developmental opportunities begin by considering an employee’s readiness to grow, then combining challenging assignments with support (training, coaching and mentoring) so that employees derive the full benefits of the experience. CEOs who value development understand that meaningful work should be a catalyst for personal and professional growth within the context of creating high-performing organizations. The Army often talks about the fact that it is not made up of people—it is people–to emphasize the importance of people in all organizations. Gen. Dennis Reimer notes that “in working with organizations for over five decades, both military and civilian, it is clear to me that people are our most important asset. We must ensure we develop them and allow them to be all they can be to create high-performing organizations.”

        All the companies we studied have in-house employee training programs. Deloitte, for example, takes pride in Deloitte University, which uses case studies in small-group settings to prepare professionals for the complexity and ambiguity inherent in their business environment and to help clients solve their challenges. Mike Fucci described it this way:

        “When you walk through the doors, you see a different setting. After you check in, your mind switches to learning mode. It’s very collaborative, a lot of group settings and multimedia interactivity. Not a lot of presentations. Groups of 6 to 8 to 20 can get together and solve problems, and we do a lot of case studies; we do a lot of hands-on learning. It’s a very immersive type of experience.”

        MSCI’s CEO, Bob Weidner, sees his organization’s role as offering training and education for his client companies. He has established a graduate program—the Strategic Metals Management program (SMM) at Washington University in St. Louis—for industry leaders, and he sponsors conferences on emerging trends in the metals industry.

        Pratt & Whitney has a comprehensive employee-training program that includes leadership training for managers at all levels within the company. All the other companies in our interview set also outsource to organizations like Thayer Leader Development Group at West Point, leadership training for senior leaders. In addition, Pratt & Whitney uses stretch assignments and cross-functional rotational programs to develop high-potential leaders for more senior positions. Bob Leduc believes much of his company’s leadership development philosophy revolves around modeling and reinforcement of positive behaviors until they become ingrained in employees’ DNA, as well as the importance of developing a culture based on trust and empowerment to ensure the successful delivery of business objectives.

        On the training side, Synchrony Financial has 2-to-3-day functional academies for credit, finance and technology, for example. Margaret also has instituted a range of leader development programs such as the STEP Program, which prepares high-potential, non-exempt individuals for management positions.

        “We have a lot of non-exempt employees, many in call centers, and the STEP Program is focused on helping them advance,” she explained. “This is a two-year rotational program using experiential learning and development to help them grow out of the non-exempt ranks into the exempt ranks and become managers of people; we’ve had real success with the program. The other positive is that there is a lot of our diversity in our non-exempt staff, so we’ve been able to pull people up through the organization and increase diversity in our ranks.

        Synchrony makes extensive use of stretch assignments and critical experiences by moving “people with real talent, leadership and capabilities to different functions.” Margaret told the story of a finance professional who was moved to marketing. As a result, both the individual and the firm discovered he had real talent in that area. He was bold enough to say he wanted to try it (an indicator of developmental readiness) and the company was bold enough to let him try it. Margaret also is moving more tech people into other functional areas to both develop talent and meet the need for greater tech infusion throughout the company. This is a stellar example of a CEO matching organizational requirements for adaptability with individual employee development.

        The CEOs with whom we spoke understand that their organizations’ ability to adapt to market disruptions would only be effective if their employees and leaders understand how they contribute to the company’s success and have the requisite skills and personal attributes to make it happen. We heard CEOs extol the virtues of empowering employees and leaders at all levels to act within their scope of responsibility to be able to add flexibility and responsiveness to their companies. Training and leader development, tailored to specific jobs and levels of responsibility, create the workforce that is allowing them to succeed in their VUCA environments.

        Successful businesses create a culture of learning that fosters individual growth and corporate flexibility to respond to the dynamics of the marketplace. The final article in this series highlights the essential keys to excelling in a VUCA environment.

        Fuente: Chief Executive

        Haciendo click en cada uno de los links siguientes, Contenidos de nuestros 
        TALLERES DE CAPACITACIÓN IN COMPANY, "A MEDIDA" 
        de las necesidades de su Organización:








          Consultas al email: mamc.latam@gmail.com


          .·. Dr. Miguel Ángel MEDINA CASABELLA, MSM, MBA, MHSA .·.
          Especialista Multicultural Global en Management Estratégico, Conducta Organizacional, Gestión del Cambio e Inversiones, graduado en University of California at Berkeley y The Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania)
          Consultor en Dirección General de Cultura y Educación de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
          Miembro del Comité EEUU del Consejo Argentino para las Relaciones Internacionales
          Representante de The George Washington University para LatAm desde 1996
          Ex Director Académico y Profesor de Gestión del Cambio del HSML Program para LatAm en 
          The George Washington University (Washington DC)
          CEO, MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS GROUP LatAm
          Skype: medinacasabella


          MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS GROUP LatAm ©
          es una Consultora Interdisciplinaria cuya Misión es proveer
          soluciones integrales, eficientes y operativas en todas las áreas vinculadas a:

          Estrategias Multiculturales y Transculturales, Organizacionales y Competitivas,
          Management Estratégico,
          Gestión del Cambio,
          Marketing Estratégico,
          Proyectos de Inversión,
          Gestión Educativa,
          Capacitación

          de Latino América (LatAm), para los Sectores:

          a) Industria y Servicios,
          b) Universidades y Centros de Capacitación,
          c) ONGs y Gobiernos.